Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller - Zhang Xin Yu
Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller, a famed dramatist, poet, and essayist, was born in Marbach, a small town in southwest Germany, to Elisabeth Kodweiss and Johann Kaspar Schiller, a lieutenant in the army of the Duke of Württemberg. Though tutored in Latin at an early age by his local pastor to prepare him for theological studies, Schiller was mandated by the duke to attend the duke’s new military academy, Karlsschule.

Schiller later related how his rebellion against the suffocating rigidity and isolation of Karlsschule paradoxically fostered his love of poetry. He remained at the school for eight years, focusing first on law, then on medicine. After his second medical dissertation, “On the Connection of the Animal Nature of Man with his Spiritual Nature,”was accepted, he became a regimental physician in Stuttgart.

There, he completed his first drama, The Robbers, the staging of which a year later (1782) in Mannheim brought him immediate acclaim and confirmation of his literary gifts.When the duke forbade him to write anything but medical treatises, Schiller fled Württemberg. For most of the rest of his life he would suffer considerable financial hardship and extremely poor health.

Friedrich von Schlegel

Friedrich von Schlegel
Friedrich von Schlegel

Friedrich von Schlegel, a critic and philosopher, whose writings spearheaded early German Romanticism, started out as a devotee of William Shakespeare poetry. Born to an illustrious literary family in Hanover and classically trained, Schlegel was an unhappy and unfocused student of law at Göttingen and Leipzig from 1790 to 1793, all the while piling up enormous gambling debts.

Fleeing creditors and abandoning his legal studies, he moved in 1794 to Dresden where, inspired by Caroline Böhmer, his future sister-in-law, he launched his literary career with essays extolling ancient mythology poetry’s superiority to modern poetry. In “On the Study of Greek Poetry”, he echoes Johann Joachim Winckelmann by attributing the greater unity, objectivity, and naturalness of ancient works to the Greeks’ single-minded pursuit of idealized beauty.

Philosophy, Criticism, and the Romantic Turn

Schlegel eventually wrote the History of the Poetry of the Greeks and Romans, but by the time the only volume was published in 1798, his view of modern poetry had changed. Already in his 1795 essay his admiration for William Shakespeare seems to belie his insistence on Sophocles’ superiority.

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher - Siva Aprilia
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher was nineteenthcentury Protestantism’s great systematic theologian. It was he who marked the points of the compass for much of subsequent theology and philosophy of religion.

Like St. Augustine, Schleiermacher desired to know God and the soul, and his place in the history of philosophy is due largely to the fact that he was able to state in modern language and concepts the great Augustinian conviction that religious faith is native to all human experience. Therefore, the particular system of communication of God and the knowledge of the soul are two orders of knowledge that must be distinguished but cannot be separated.

Life

Schleiermacher was first and foremost a preacher and theologian, a church statesman, and an educator. He carried out his work as a philosopher in the context of the great idealist systems of Friedrich von Schelling, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and G.W. F. Hegel, but instead of attempting to imitate these men he applied himself to the critical analysis of religion, both in its personal and societal manifestations, without reducing such experience to some form of philosophic intuition.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the philosopher, essayist, and novelist, was born at Geneva. His mother having died a few days after his birth, he was brought up by an aunt and an erratic father who taught him to read through the medium of sentimental novels and Plutarch’s Lives. He had little formal education.

After staying for about two years with a country minister at Bossey, he returned to Geneva and lived with an uncle. He was then apprenticed in turn to a notary and an engraver, the latter of whom treated him so brutally that in 1728 he left Geneva to seek his fortune elsewhere.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was protected and befriended by Mme. de Warens, a convert to Roman Catholicism, who had left her native canton of Vaud to live at Annecy in Savoy, with financial support from the king of Sardinia and the ecclesiastical authorities. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s subsequent attachment to her was a decisive factor in his conversion to Roman Catholicism as well as in his emotional development.

Josiah Royce

Josiah Royce
Josiah Royce

Josiah Royce, the American idealist philosopher, was born in Grass Valley, California. He received his AB degree from the University of California in 1875 and his doctorate from Johns Hopkins University in 1878. In the intervening years he studied in Germany at Leipzig and Göttingen, where he attended the lectures of Hermann Lotze. Royce returned to the University of California in 1878 as an instructor of English.

Four years later, with the help of William James and George Herbert Palmer of the Harvard department of philosophy, he was invited to University of California, where he taught for two years as a replacement for men on leave; in 1885 he received a regular appointment as assistant professor.

Until his death Royce was one of the mainstays of the philosophy department in its socalled golden period. During that time he carried on his friendly debate with William James about the merits and demerits of absolute idealism, supervised the doctoral work of George Santayana, and delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of California in Scotland. Royce was a prolific writer and was much in demand as a public speaker.

Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, the French statesman and professor of philosophy, was born at Sompuis, a village in what is now the department of the Marne. Théodore Jouffroy represented this department in the Chamber of Deputies from 1815 to 1839, usually in the opposition.

He is best known as the leader of the Doctrinaires, a group whose members derived their political views from what they believed to be immutable and self-evident principles. These principles led to a compromise between absolute and constitutional monarchy, and though the principles were supported by Louis XVIII, they were rejected by his brother and successor, Charles X.

Pierre Paul Royer-Collard had little, if any, philosophical training. Nevertheless, from 1811 to 1814 he was professor of philosophy and dean at the Sorbonne. Théodore Jouffroy lectured first on Thomas Reid and later on his own views. Just as his political views were a compromise, so in philosophy he sought a compromise between the left wing of sensationalism and the right wing of authoritarian traditionalism.

Vasilii Vasil’evich Rozanov

Vasilii Vasil’evich Rozanov
Vasilii Vasil’evich Rozanov

Vasilii Vasil’evich Rozanov, the Russian critic and philosopher, was born in Vetluga, Russia, and attended secondary schools in Simbirsk and Novgorod before entering Moscow University as a student in the faculty of history and philology.

After his graduation from the university in 1881, he taught history and geography in a succession of secondary schools in provincial towns and began the writing on religious and philosophical themes that was to gain him a reputation as a brilliant if erratic critic of contemporary culture, both secular and religious. In 1893 a minor government post in St. Petersburg brought him to the center of Russian literary life, and in 1899 he retired to devote full time to writing.

He published numerous books and contributed many articles to the Russian reviews of the day, particularly the reactionary Novoe vremia (New times). During the Russian Revolution he took refuge with the religious philosopher Father Pavel Florenskii in Sergiev Posad, near Moscow, where Vasilii Vasil’evich Rozanov died.

Richard Rufus

Richard Rufus
Richard Rufus

Richard Rufus, a thirteenth-century philosopher and theologian, was among the first European medieval authors to study Aristotelian metaphysics, epistemology, and natural philosophy. His lectures on the so-called libri naturales date from a period shortly after the effective lapse of the ban on teaching them in 1231 and are among the earliest European commentaries on those works. In 1238, after writing treatises against Averroes and lecturing on Aristotle—at greatest length on the Metaphysics—he joined the Franciscan Order, left Paris, and became a theologian.

Rufus’s lectures on Peter Lombard’s Sentences were the first presented by an Oxford University bachelor of theology. Greatly influenced by Robert Grosseteste, Rufus’s Oxford lectures were devoted in part to a refutation of Richard Fishacre, the Dominican master who first lectured on the Sentences at Oxford.

Rufus’s Oxford University lectures were employed as a source by St. Bonaventure, whose lectures on the Sentences were vastly influential. Returning to Paris shortly after Bonaventure lectured there, Rufus took Bonaventure’s lectures as a model for his own Parisian Sentences commentary.

Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle
Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle, the British philosopher, was born in Brighton. Having read Classical Honour Moderations and the Final School of Literae Humaniores (Greats) he went on to read the then newly established School of Philosophy, Politics and Economics at the Queen’s College, Oxford. He became a lecturer at Christ Church in 1924 and in the following year a student and tutor, and he remained there until his appointment as professor at the end of World War II.

Gilbert Ryle was the Waynflete professor of metaphysical philosophy in the University of Oxford from 1945 to 1968. Ryle was largely responsible for the institution of the new degree of bachelor of philosophy at Oxford. He served as the editor of Mind, after the retirement of G. E. Moore, from 1947 until 1971.

Ryle’s philosophical writings covered a wide range of topics. They fall mainly within the fields of philosophical methodology, philosophical logic, and the philosophy of mind, but the total spread is very wide and includes some work on the history of philosophy, especially on Plato. Only the fields of moral philosophy, political philosophy, and aesthetics are comparatively neglected.

Auguste Sabatier

Auguste Sabatier
Auguste Sabatier

Auguste Sabatier was perhaps the Protestant theologian most influential in the early twentieth century. Many Catholic modernists as well as Protestant liberals believed that his philosophy of religion had achieved its object, a reconciliation between the essential verities of Christian experience and the demands of science. Sabatier was a professor of reformed dogmatics at Strasbourg and Paris and a sometime journalist and literary critic. Auguste Sabatier ended his career as dean of the Theological Faculty of Paris.

Sabatier described his theory of religious knowledge as “critical symbolism.” By this he meant to indicate that religious doctrine and dogma are attempts to symbolize the primary and eternal religious experience (or consciousness) of the believer.

Auguste Sabatier taught that the doctrines of historical religions are secondary, temporal, and transient symbols of this central religious experience. Stephen Hawking dogmas, then, are necessarily inadequate attempts to “express the invisible by the visible, the eternal by the temporal, spiritual realities by sensible images.”

Thémiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe

Thémiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe
Thémiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe

The real name of Thémiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe, the French freethinker, was Hyacinthe Cordonnier. Born at Orléans, he was unjustly reported to be the son of Jacques Bénigne Bossuet. His ambitious mother induced him to change his name and to become a cavalry officer.

Later he devoted himself to the study of ancient and modern languages in Holland, from which he had to flee because of a jealous husband and to which he later returned because he had seduced one of his pupils. He became an editor of the new Journal littéraire (1713) and wrote in favor of the moderns. In 1714 his anonymous Le chef-d’oeuvre d’un inconnu, a satire of pedantry, won him notoriety.

He eloped to London in 1722 with the daughter of a nobleman. Thémiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe stayed there for twelve years, became a member of the Royal Society, and began a long and gratuitous quarrel with Voltaire, whom he offended in a satirical play (Déification d’Aristarchus Masso, 1732). Thémiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe returned to Paris in 1734 and later moved to Holland, where he died in 1746.

Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon

Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon
Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon

The French social philosopher, Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, the founder of French socialism, was the eldest son of an impoverished nobleman. He was educated privately by tutors, among them the encyclopedist Jean Le Rond d’Alembert.

Beginning a military career at the age of seventeen, he took part in the American Revolution and was wounded at the naval battle of Saintes in 1782. Despite subsequent disclaimers, Saint-Simon actively supported some of the measures introduced by the French Revolution of 1789.

Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon renounced his title; he also drew up the cahier of his locality for the Estates General and presided at the meeting at which his commune elected a mayor. Although his revolutionary zeal earned him two certificates of civisme, his activities were not wholly disinterested.

School of Saint Victor

School of Saint Victor
School of Saint Victor

The Augustinian house of canons at St. Victor in Paris was founded in 1108 by William of Champeaux, the celebrated logician and theologian who retired there from the schools of Paris after undergoing a religious conversion and after Peter Abelard’s attacks on his realism.

The abbey survived until the French Revolution, but in the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries it was especially famous for its public school and for the distinction of the masters and canons who resided and taught there.

From William of Champeaux, St. Victor derived high religious ideals, a leaning toward the conservative theological tradition of the school of Anselm of Laon, and an active interest in the work of other Parisian schools. Its masters mediated between the theological orthodoxy and strictness of the Cistercians— Bernard of Clairvaux was a friend to St. Victor—and the intellectual adventurousness of such secular masters as Abelard.

Wesley Salmon

Wesley Salmon
Wesley Salmon

The American philosopher of science Wesley Charles Salmon was born August 9 in Detroit,Michigan, and died April 22 near Madison, Ohio. He pursued undergraduate studies at Wayne University and the University of Chicago Divinity School, received an MA in philosophy from the University of Chicago in 1947, and a PhD in philosophy from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1950.

His principal academic appointments were at Brown University, Indiana University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Pittsburgh; he retired from this last institution in 1999. At UCLA his dissertation advisor was the philosopher of science Hans Reichenbach and much of Salmon’s subsequent work was influenced by Reichenbach’s philosophy. A lifelong defender of empiricism, Salmon made significant contributions to a wide range of topics, primarily in explanation, causation, inductive inference, and the philosophy of probability.

Work

Beginning in 1971, Salmon developed a widely discussed alternative to Jean Perrin’s covering law model of scientific explanation. The key element of Salmon’s statistical relevance model was its insistence that explanatory factors must be statistically relevant to the occurrence of the event to be explained.

Francisco Sanches

Francisco Sanches
Francisco Sanches

Francisco Sanches, a philosopher and physician, was born on the Spanish-Portuguese border, either in Tuy or Braga, of Marrano or New Christian parents. His family had moved to Portugal and then to southern France to escape religious and political persecution. The young Sanches studied at the Collège de Guyenne in Bordeaux, the same school that his distant cousin, Michel Eyquem De Montaigne, attended.

Francisco Sanches studied in Rome and then went to the University of Montpellier, where he received a degree in medicine in 1574. Francisco Sanches was appointed professor of philosophy in 1585 and professor of medicine in 1612 at the University of Toulouse, where he had a successful career until his death in 1623.

One of Sanches’s first philosophical writings that has survived is a letter to the Jesuit mathematician, Father Christopher Clavius, who had just edited Euclid’s works and whom Francisco Sanches had met in Rome. Sanches offered a skeptical attack on the possibility of attaining Michel Eyquem De Montaigne truth in mathematics. This was followed by his most famous writing, Quod nihil scitur (That Nothing Is Known).

George Santayana

George Santayana
George Santayana

George Santayana, the philosopher and man of letters, was born in Madrid. His parents separated within a few years of his birth, and his mother went to live in Boston, Massachusetts, with the children of a previous marriage. Santayana grew up in Ávila under his father’s care, but at the age of eight he joined his mother in Boston.

George Santayana was educated at the Boston Latin School and at Harvard College. After graduating from Harvard in 1886, he studied in Germany for two years and then returned to take his doctorate at Harvard, for which he wrote a thesis on Rudolf Lotze.

George Santayana subsequently joined the department of philosophy and remained a member of the Harvard faculty until 1912, when a small inheritance permitted him to retire. He lived in England for a number of years and then in Paris, but in 1925 he finally settled in Rome. During World War II, he took refuge in the convent of an order of English nuns in Rome, and he continued to live there until his death.

Moritz Schlick

Moritz Schlick
Moritz Schlick

Moritz Schlick, one of the founders of modern analytical philosophy and a guiding spirit of the Vienna circle of logical positivists, was born in Berlin. He was a direct descendant on his mother’s side of Ernst Moritz Arndt, the famous German patriot and political leader of the war of liberation against Napoleon Bonaparte. At the age of eighteen, Schlick entered the University of Berlin to study physics under Max Planck. He received his doctorate in 1904 with a dissertation on the reflection of light in a nonhomogeneous medium.

Moritz Schlick’s familiarity with the methods and criteria of research in the natural sciences left him dissatisfied with the epistemological notions both of neo-Kantianism, which then dominated the German universities, and of Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology, which had already become widely known.

Instead, Schlick’s starting point was the analyses carried out by Ernst Mach, Hermann von Helmholtz, and Henri Poincaré of the basic concepts and presuppositions of the individual sciences. His central interest at the time was the fundamental question of what is to be understood by knowledge.

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher of pessimism who gave the will a leading place in his metaphysics. He was born in Danzig. His father, a successful businessman of partly Dutch ancestry, was an admirer of Voltaire and was imbued with a keen dislike of absolutist governments.

When Danzig surrendered to the Prussians in 1793, the family moved to Hamburg and remained there until the father’s death (apparently by suicide) in 1805. Schopenhauer’s mother was a novelist who in later years established a salon in Weimar, which brought him into contact with a number of literary figures, including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. His relations with his mother, however, were bitter and antagonistic and eventually led to a more or less complete estrangement.

Education

Schopenhauer’s early education was somewhat unconventional. He spent two years in France in the charge of a friend of his father, and for another period he accompanied his parents on a prolonged tour of France, England (where he attended school in London for several months), Switzerland, and Austria.After his father’s death he was tutored privately in the classics for a time and then entered the University of Göttingen as a medical student, studying, among other subjects, physics, chemistry, and botany.

Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Schrödinger was born in Vienna, Austria. After his years at the Gymnasium, where he was given a strong education in classics and in science, he studied physics and mathematics at the university of Vienna from 1906. His major teachers were the successors of Ludwig Boltzmann: Franz Exner and Fritz Hasenöhrl. Schrödinger’s early interest for philosophy is evident in several manuscripts of this period, which contain reflections about Greek and Indian thought and British empiricism.

He was then awarded the D. Phil. Degree in 1910 and became assistant experimental physicist in Exner’s laboratory in 1911. From this date until 1922, he worked on several subjects, including atmospheric radioactivity, statistical physics, psycho-physics of sensations, general relativity, and atomic physics.

At the end of World War I, in which Schrödinger served as an artillery officer in the Austrian army, he devoted one year to studying philosophy. He wrote down his philosophical reflections later, during the summer of 1925, in an essay that became part one of his book My View of the World. After brief appointments in various German universities, he became full professor of theoretical physics at the university of Zurich in 1922.

Julius Schultz

Julius Schultz
Julius Schultz

Julius Schultz, the German philosopher, dramatist, historian, and philologist, was born in Göttingen. From 1888 until 1927 he taught at a high school in Berlin. Among Schultz’s numerous writings dealing with philosophy, the most important are Die Maschinentheorie des Lebens (1909) and Die Philosophie am Scheidewege (1922).

Schultz’s starting point is the question How must we conceive of consciousness, on the one hand, and the object, on the other, if we wish to understand from their combined action the world of phenomena? To answer the psychological part of this question, Schultz first studied the axioms and categories of ordinary and of scientific thinking in order to see what attitude toward the phenomena is forced upon our understanding by its own innermost essence.

At the same time he found a solution to the epistemological problem, namely, that if we desire not only to describe the world scientifically but also to understand it uniformly and completely, we must reduce all qualitative differences to quantitative ones. Accordingly, we must interpret the world of sense as a world of motion and explain all the happenings in the world in a mechanistic-dynamistic manner.

Gottlob Ernst Schulze

Gottlob Ernst Schulze
Gottlob Ernst Schulze

Gottlob Ernst Schulze, the skeptic and critic of Kantian philosophy, was born in Heldrungen, Thuringia. He was professor at Wittenberg and Helmstedt and later at Göttingen, where one of his students was Arthur Schopenhauer. His influence is due chiefly to his writings, in which he developed his critical-skeptical position. Schulze’s main work, and the one that made him famous, was Aenesidemus.

In this work, which first appeared anonymously and without the place of publication, Gottlob Ernst Schulze presents objections to the Kantian critique and to K. L. Reinhold’s intended vindication of the critical philosophy. Schulze’s arguments against the critical philosophy led him to share David Hume’s skepticism, of which he gave a concise presentation.

The Aenesidemus tries to show that Hume’s skepticism has not been refuted by the critical philosophy. However, Schulze’s position is not that of absolute skepticism: The validity of formal logic and the principles of identity and contradiction are not subject to doubt.

Alfred Schutz

Alfred Schutz
Alfred Schutz

Alfred Schutz was born in Vienna on April 13, 1899. He studied law and social sciences at the University of Vienna from 1918 until 1921, where he completed a doctorate in law and then continued his studies in the social sciences until 1923. Equally as important for his intellectual development as his studies at the university was his participation in the informal academic life of Vienna, in which he also cultivated his philosophical interests.

After completing his academic studies and in addition to his ongoing scholarly activities, Schutz held the full-time job of a bank lawyer—a dual life that lasted until he retired from the bank in 1956. Following the annexation of Austria to the Third Reich, Schutz and his family escaped via Paris to New York.

There he became affiliated with the graduate faculty at the New School for Social Research in New York, where he taught from 1943 until 1952 as a lecturer, then afterwards as a full professor of sociology and from 1956 as professor of both sociology and philosophy. He died on May 20, 1959, in New York.

Michele Federico Sciacca

Michele Federico Sciacca
Michele Federico Sciacca

Michele Federico Sciacca was a founder of the Gallarate movement, professor of theoretical philosophy at the University of Genoa, and the founder and editor of the journals Giornale di metafisica and Humanitas. He started as a historian of ideas, writing important works on Reid (1935), Plato (1939), and St. Augustine (1939); a massive review of Italian thought, Il XX secolo; and a review of contemporary European thought, La filosofia oggi.

Although Sciacca studied under Antonio Aliotta, his major stimulus came from Giovanni Gentile, from whom Sciacca derived his basic axiom that concrete being must be act, never fact. Sciacca developed this principle in his own fashion under the influence of Plato, St. Augustine, Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, and Maurice Blondel.

Sciacca’s position was one of “integralism.” The central notion of integralism is interiority, according to which the ground of all forms of being and existence lies in the activity of the subject. Sciacca asserts that the existent, or act, cannot be a fact among facts; its existence resides wholly in its own self-generative actuality. Against existentialism he asserts that the being of the existent cannot be pure possibility or nothingness; it must be being.

Research Ethics of Science

Research Ethics of Science
Research Ethics of Science

The idea that ethics is important in scientific research is not new. In 1830 Charles Babbage (1791–1871) admonished British scientists for engaging in dishonest research. In 1912 researchers discovered the fossil skull of a missing link between humans and apes at the Piltdown quarry in Sussex, England. After four decades of controversy, several scientists proved that the skull was a hoax.

At the beginning of World War II, prominent physicists believed that it was their moral obligation to help defeat Nazi Germany. Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945) urging the United States to develop the atomic bomb.

J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967) directed the Manhattan Project, a $1 billion effort to build the first nuclear weapons. After the United States dropped two bombs on Japan in the summer of 1945, many scientists who worked on the bomb also led the Atoms for Peace movement, which helped to establish the International Atomic Energy Commission.

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre, French existentialist philosopher and author, was born in Paris where he attended prestigious lycées and then the École Normale Supérieur from 1924 to 1928. After passing his agrégation the following year, he taught in several lycées both in New York City and elsewhere.

In 1933, Jean-Paul Sartre succeeded Raymond Aron (1905–1983) as a research stipendiary for a year at the Institut Français in Berlin, where he immersed himself in phenomenology, concentrating on Edmund Husserl but also reading Max Scheler and some Martin Heidegger.

In the years following his return to France, he published several phenomenological works as well as the philosophical novel La nausea (Nausea) (1938) that brought him public recognition. He resumed his teaching till conscripted into the French Army in 1939.

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller
Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller, the British pragmatist philosopher, was born in Schleswig-Holstein and studied at Rugby and at Balliol College, Oxford. After teaching German at Eton, he returned to Oxford for his MA. In 1893 he went to Cornell University as an instructor and graduate student.

In 1897, without receiving a doctorate, he returned to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he was successively assistant tutor, tutor, senior tutor, and fellow and where he received a DSc in 1906. He served as treasurer of the Mind Association and president of the Aristotelian Society (1921), and he was elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1926. From 1926 on, Schiller spent part of each year at the University of Southern California as visiting lecturer and then as professor; in 1935 he moved there permanently.

Pragmatism

Schiller’s views, which he called at various times humanism, voluntarism, and personalism, as well as pragmatism, were strongly influenced by William James; and Schiller paid James great tribute, although he claimed to have arrived at his opinions independently.

Heinrich Scholz

Heinrich Scholz
Heinrich Scholz

Heinrich Scholz, the German theologian and logician, was born in Berlin. He professed an outspoken Platonism based on a profound knowledge of the history of metaphysics and of the logical works of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Bernard Bolzano, and Gottlob Frege.

Heinrich Scholz identified philosophy, in its original Platonic sense as the striving for universal knowledge, with the study of the foundations of mathematics and science. Thus, in Was ist Philosophie? Heinrich Scholz concluded, from Plato’s demand for knowledge of geometry and a mathematical astronomy, that the axiomatic method is required for universal knowledge.

Heinrich Scholz regarded mathematical logic as developed by Leibniz, Bolzano, Frege, Bertrand Russell, and others as the “epochale Gestalt”of metaphysica generalis. He opposed formalism in logic because it failed to provide for the semantics of formal languages, and he opposed constructivism because of its arbitrary anthropocentric limitations of logic.

Science and Pseudoscience

Science and Pseudoscience
Science and Pseudoscience

Since the rise of modern science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, attempts to adjudicate the difference between science and pseudoscience have always been more than an exercise in academic debate. The religious, political, and social implications of how science is defined, who defines it, and who and what is left out of the definition has been a contentious one.

Today, the term pseudoscience is often employed by those in the scientific community to disparage claims to scientific credibility that, in fact, lack evidence or fail to employ the methods of science. Pseudoscience is only one term used to contrast with science; others include, on the neutral side, nonscience, protoscience, prescience, frontiers science, and borderlands science; and on the pejorative side, pathological science, junk science, voodoo science, crackpot science, and bad science.

With the ascendancy of science in the seventeenth century other knowledge traditions began to employ the empirical methods of science to gain respectability. The study of demons, witches, and spirits, for example, took a decidedly empirical turn in the early modern period, out of religious concerns that atheism might ascend to social respectability along with science.

Science Policy

Science Policy
Science Policy

Science policy deals with how society supports science and how science is utilized in society. The philosophy of science policy considers both interactions from the perspectives of logic, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, metaphysics, and ontology. Its domain is broader than the philosophy of science, which emphasizes logical and epistemological questions and goes deeper than the descriptive analyses of science, technology, and society (STS) studies.

The central issues in the philosophy of science policy may be distinguished in terms of its two constituent terms: the structure and proper influence of policy on science, and the structure and proper role of science in public policy. Propaedeutic is the question of the nature of policy itself.

What are Policies?

What is known as the demarcation problem in the philosophy of science analyzes science as a special form of knowledge. What are known as boundary issues in STS studies describe the distinctive practices of the science-society interface. By contrast, the phenomenon of policy has been subject to little conceptual examination either as knowledge or as practice.

Science Studies

Science Studies
Science Studies

The phrase “science studies” is sometimes used as an umbrella term referring to work in history of science, philosophy of science, research ethics, and so on. But it can also designate a new interdisciplinary approach to the study of science, technology, and society, one that challenges traditional views about the epistemic basis of scientific knowledge and the proper role of science in society. It is this intellectual movement called Science and Technology Studies (STS) that will be discussed here.

Science Studies in the STS sense discards almost all of the distinctions common in traditional philosophy of science, such as the demarcation between the context of discovery and the context of justification, prescriptions versus descriptions, and theory versus observation.

Instead, it looks at science as a social activity that cannot be usefully understood in isolation from either technology or society at large. More important than analysis is contextualization. Case studies of local scientific practices are the preferred route to understanding.

Scientia Media and Molinism

Scientia Media and Molinism
Scientia Media and Molinism

The scientia media is a key term in the theology of Luis de Molina (1535–1600) and in the variants of his teaching introduced by the later Jesuits, especially Robert Bellarmine, Leonard Lessius, Francisco Suárez, and Gabriel Vasquez, in the attempt to resolve the apparent contradiction between the doctrines of grace and of free will.

Molina, a Spanish Jesuit who taught at Coimbra and Evora in Portugal, published his famous Liberi Arbitrii cum Gratiae Donis, Divina Praescientia, Providentia, Praedestinatione et Reprobatione Concordia at Lisbon in 1588. The publication of the Concordia, as it came to be called, soon led to a controversy that divided the theologians and philosophers of Spain. Generally, the position of Molina was enthusiastically supported by members of his own order and just as vigorously denounced by the Thomists.

For Molina the essential problem was to maintain both human freedom and the efficacy of grace. Given the fact of God’s foreknowledge, Molina wished to preserve such a foreknowledge without lapsing into determinism, to show that although God knows infallibly what an individual will freely do, such an infallible knowledge in no way determines the will of the individual.

Scientific Method

Scientific Method
Scientific Method

What follows is a description of various views on inductive inference and methods for inferring general theories as they have developed from the scientific revolution to modern times. Later, the development of methods for discovering causal relationships will be discussed.

MODERN METHODOLOGY. A strong influence on contemporary methodology is interdisciplinary research. In the twentieth century, the question of how we can use observations to attain empirical knowledge became the subject of research in a number of disciplines, such as statistics, econometrics, and computer science. Modern philosophy of method continues to contribute to and draw on developments in related disciplines.

Another strong influence on contemporary methodology arises from studies of the history of science, which captured the attention of philosophers because of the groundbreaking work of Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996) on the Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Scientific Realism

Scientific Realism
Scientific Realism

Scientific realism is a philosophical view about science that consists of three theses:
  • The metaphysical thesis: The world has a definite and mind-independent structure. 
  • The semantic thesis: Scientific theories should be taken at face value. They are truth-conditioned descriptions of their intended domain, both observable and unobservable. Hence, they are capable of being true or false. The theoretical terms featured in theories have putative factual reference. 
  • The epistemic thesis: Mature and predictively successful scientific theories are well confirmed and (approximately) true of the world. So the entities posited by them, or entities very similar to those posited, inhabit the world.

Metaphysics

Let us call the first thesis of scientific realism metaphysical realism. What exactly is involved in the claim of mindindependence? One way to construe the opposite claim that the world is mind-dependent, along the lines of traditional idealism and phenomenalism, is to argue that the world consists of mental entities, be they ideas or actual and possible sense-data. Thus understood, minddependence is a thesis about the kind of stuff that makes up the world.

Michael Scot

Michael Scot
Michael Scot

Michael Scot was an astrologer, alchemist, and translator of Arabic and Hebrew works into Latin. Born in Scotland late in the twelfth century, he spent most of his active life in Toledo, Palermo, and mainland Italy—perhaps at Rome. He first appears with any degree of certainty at Toledo in 1217, when he finished a translation of alBitrogi’s (Alpetragius’s) Liber Astronomiae (On the spheres).

The next certain date is 1220, when he is reported to have completed a Latin translation of Aristotle’s Historia Animalium, probably at Toledo. Michael Scot seems to have become favorably known at the papal court, for he was offered the archbishopric of Cashel in Ireland in 1225.

Michael Scot refused the office because of his ignorance of Gaelic. Probably during this period he produced the translation of Aristotle’s De Caelo et Mundo, along with several other physical works of Aristotle with their Arabic commentaries by Averroes.

Scotism

Scotism
Scotism

Scotism refers variously to
  1. a loosely identified body of views thought to be original with or characteristic of John Duns Scotus,
  2. a tradition of texts, doctrines, and approaches that traces back to him, and
  3. a via (“way” or perhaps “school”) that had an institutional presence in the universities of the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries.
In the first sense scholars today speak of “logical Scotism” in the work of authors who perhaps have never heard of Scotus.

In both the first and the second senses scholars ask whether Charles Sanders Peirce, who had read Scotus with care but was a fiercely independent thinker, was a Scotist. In the third sense scholars inquire about the presence of Scotism in the arts and theology faculties of particular universities in the sixteenth century and investigate its fortuna.

John R. Searle

John R. Searle
John R. Searle

John R. Searle was born in Denver Colorado in 1932. He attended the University of Wisconsin (1949–1952), then Oxford (1952–1959) as a Rhodes Scholar. John R. Searle earned his PhD (Oxford) in 1959 and went to the University of California Berkeley, where he remained, and where he is Mills Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Language Over the past forty years, Searle has been working on a selection of problems in philosophy at three levels o description: mind (the basic level), language (the middle level), and society (the highest level).

In each case John R. Searle can be seen as following a certain pattern: he proposes analyses of facts at one level of description in which they cause, are realized in, or constitute, facts at another higher level. Brute facts can count as institutional facts, and some objective brute facts can cause and realize other subjective, brute facts.

Like phenomenological analyses Searle’s approach is not classically reductive, but there is an explanatory asymmetry: higher level phenomena often are to be explained in terms of lower level phenomena (explaining is not explaining away). However, as contrasted with phenomenology, this procedure does not require that conditions revealed by analysis be revealed in experience.

Self

Self
Self

In its normal use the English expression “self ” is not even quite a word, but something that makes an ordinary object pronoun into a reflexive one (e.g., her into herself). The reflexive pronoun is used when the object of an action or attitude is the same as the subject of that action or attitude. If I say Mark Twain shot himself in the foot, I describe Mark Twain not only as the shooter but as the person shot.

In this sense “the self ” is just the person doing the action or holding the attitude that is somehow in question. “Self ” is also used as a prefix for names of activities and attitudes, identifying the special case where the object is the same as the agent: self-love, self-hatred, self-abuse, self-promotion, self-knowledge.

“The self ” often means more than this, however. In psychology it is often used for that set of attributes that a person attaches to himself or herself most firmly, the attributes that the person finds it difficult or impossible to imagine himself or herself without. The term identity is also used in this sense. Typically, one’s sex is a part of one’s self or one’s identity; one’s profession or nationality may or may not be.

Self in Indian Philosophy

Self in Indian Philosophy
Self in Indian Philosophy

The human phenomenological experience of the universe consists fundamentally of the self or subject encountering a world of objects. Thus the two main objects of philosophy are the subject or the self—its nature and constitution—on the one hand, and the universe, along with its nature and constitution, on the other. Indian philosophy is no exception to this rule.

This experiencing self is referred to by several terms in Indian philosophy, the one most widely used being atman. The word is usually derived from the root an, which means “to breathe”; apparently the fact that the perceiving self is an animate being who faces other animate beings and inanimate objects is central to its emergence as the marker of the self.

It is called purua when its distinction from inanimate nature or prakti is emphasized, and it is called jiva when the atman is viewed as caught up in the cycle of sasara or birth and death, freedom from which becomes a goal of this empirical self (jiva). In many systems this freedom is attained when the jiva or empirical self discovers its true relationship to the atman or metaphysical self.

Self-interest

Self-interest
Self-interest

Aristotle claims in the Nicomachean Ethics that it is the virtuous person “more than any other sort of person who seems to be a self-lover. ... he awards himself what is finest and best of all” (1168b28–30). Aristotle’s thought is that if one pursues things such as pleasure and wealth, one pursues what is base, injuring oneself.

Contrast this with the implication of the recommendation “Look out for number one.” This advice is not taken to mean that one should pursue virtue. Rather, the idea is that the interests of others should take second place to one’s own. Virtue is not usually seen as the path of self-interest, especially because it can often involve self-sacrifice.

This conflict suggests that effective pursuit of self-interest, or the interests of others, requires an account of the nature of well-being. (Henceforth, I will often use the term well-being rather than self-interest since that term is used more often in philosophical discussions of self-interest.) In the first part of this article, the major theories are discussed. In the second part, the focus is the importance (or lack thereof) of having an account of well-being for ethics.

Self-knowledge

Self-knowledge
Self-knowledge

Legend has it that when Chilan of Sparta asked, “What is best for man?” Apollo replied, “Know thyself.” Thus, carved into the lintel of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi were the Greek words “gnothi seauton”—“Know thyself ” (Parke 1933).We can try to follow this Delphic injunction because we are self-conscious beings, capable of self-reflection.

Sigmund Freud (1923) maintained that we have unconscious beliefs, desires, motives, and intentions, and that extensive use of psychoanalytic techniques is often required to uncover them. Whether there is a Freudian unconscious is controversial, as is whether or not there is suppression or repression in the psychoanalytic senses.

Nevertheless, our mental lives can be dissociated. And self-reflection can be as biased as reflection on any topic. Too charitable an attitude towards ourselves can leave us overly sanguine about the strength of our characters or the goodness of our intentions. Too uncharitable an attitude can lead to an exaggerated view of our frailties: We may see ourselves as more selfish, less kind, and less well-intentioned than we really are.

Roy Wood Sellars

Roy Wood Sellars
Roy Wood Sellars

Roy Wood Sellars, the American critical realist, taught philosophy at the University of Michigan. Although he was never as well known outside philosophical circles as some of his contemporaries, after the publication of his first book, Critical Realism, in 1916, Sellars maintained a substantial reputation among his fellow philosophers as a vigorously independent thinker. His thought was rigorous and critical; he never yielded to the fashionable movements of the day but steadfastly pursued his own original insights into basic philosophical problems.

The core of Sellars’s philosophy is epistemological. He is concerned with showing that the critical realism of the philosopher is related to the “natural realism” of the “plain man.” The philosopher reflects on the plain man’s uncritical view of knowledge, which he clarifies and refines so that it is philosophically justifiable, but he does not vitiate its essential insistence upon the independence of the object of knowledge.

The most significant element in Sellars’s vindication of realism is his revision of the theory of perception, which he describes as a process of interpretation of sensa, as mediated by factors both external and internal to the perceiving subject.

Lucius Annaeus Seneca

Lucius Annaeus Seneca
Lucius Annaeus Seneca

A Roman adherent of Stoicism with a particular interest in ethics, Lucius Annaeus Seneca had an extensive career in politics and literature. His Moral Epistles, two major treatises, and a series of essays including On Anger offer an engaging presentation of philosophical ideas and are an important source for earlier Stoic thought. Also extant are eight plays and a political lampoon.

Lucius Annaeus Seneca was of provincial origin, having been born at Córdoba in southern Spain, but was brought to Rome at an early age. There he received an extensive education in public speaking and literary composition. His knowledge of philosophy came from the lecturers Papirius Fabianus and Sotion (both adherents of Sextian moral philosophy), from the Cynic Demetrius, and from the Stoic Attalus.

He won considerable repute as an advocate, but his health was poor and he was in disfavor with the emperors Gaius and Claudius. Exiled by Claudius to Corsica, he was recalled in 49 to become tutor in rhetoric to the boy Nero.

Sensa

Sensa
Sensa

A distinction is often drawn in philosophy between two types of objects of awareness in perception. First, there are physical objects or substances (such as chairs, books, rocks, and water) and living organisms (animals, plants, and human beings insofar as they are perceptible, that is, their bodies).

A common technical term for all these is material objects. Second, there are data of immediate awareness, which we shall refer to as “sensa” (singular, sensum), such as color patches or shapes, sounds, smells, and tactile feelings.

This distinction is usually fourfold: (a) in status—material objects are external, located in physical space, and “public” (observable by different persons at once), while sensa are private and are usually held to have no external physical existence; (b) in extent— material objects may at one time correspond to several sensa and normally persist throughout the occurrence of many sensa; (c) in directness—the perception of material objects is indirect, that is, it involves inference from or interpretation of sensa that are “given” directly to consciousness; (d) in certainty—one is always certainly aware of sensa but not necessarily so of material objects.

Amartya K. Sen

Amartya K. Sen
Amartya K. Sen

Amartya K. Sen, an economist and philosopher, was born in Bengal in 1933. The memory of the Bengal famine of 1943, in which more than 2 million people died, drew him to work on economics and ethics. He studied economics at Presidency College, Calcutta, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he received a doctorate in economics in 1959.

After he taught at the Delhi School of Economics, the London School of Economics, Amartya K. Sen held the posts of Drummond Professor of Political Economy at Oxford University (also Fellow of All Souls College), and then Lamont University Professor and professor of economics and philosophy at Harvard University.

His contributions to economics lie in the areas of social choice theory, theory of choice, development economics, labor economics, cost-benefit analysis, and the measurement of inequality and poverty. In 1998 he was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics “for his contributions to welfare economics” and appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Anthony Ashley Cooper

Anthony Ashley Cooper
Anthony Ashley Cooper

Anthony Ashley Cooper (the Third Earl of Shaftesbury) was born in London in the home of his grandfather, the first earl, a prominent Whig politician, who put his secretary and friend, John Locke, in charge of his grandson’s education. Fluent at eleven in both Greek and Latin, Shaftesbury was an avid student of ancient philosophy, particularly Plato and the Stoics.

In 1686, accompanied by a tutor, he embarked on a three-year tour of the Continent, learning French and acquiring a sophisticated taste for the arts. He was elected to Parliament in 1695 and served for three years, although asthma prevented him from standing for reelection. In 1698 he moved to Holland, where he met Pierre Bayle, an advocate for religious tolerance and one of the first to argue that it is possible for an atheist to be virtuous.

After becoming the Third Earl of Shaftesbury in 1699, he attended meetings of the House of Lords until 1702, but once again ill health prevented him from continuing to serve and being more active in Whig causes.He married Jane Ewer in 1709; they had one son. His bad health forced him to move in 1711 to Italy, where he died in 1713.

Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley is usually thought of as a romantic and lyric poet rather than as a philosophical one. He was, however, the author of a number of polemical prose pamphlets on politics and religion; and both his prose and his poetry reflect a coherent background of social and metaphysical theory.

In general, Shelley’s beliefs are those of the radical English intelligentsia of the period immediately before and after the French Revolution, and in particular of William Godwin, who became his father-in-law. It has often been said that Shelley was really antipathetic to Godwin’s atheism and determinism and that he gradually threw off Godwin’s influence in favor of a more congenial Platonic transcendentalism. This view, however, seems to rest on a misunderstanding of both Godwin and Shelley.

Attack on Christianity

In The Necessity of Atheism, for which he was expelled from Oxford in 1811, Shelley argued, on Humean lines, that no argument for the existence of God is convincing. He developed this position in A Refutation of Deism (1814), a dialogue that purports to defend Christianity against deism, but which actually presents a strong case against both and in favor of atheism.

Sensationalism

Sensationalism
Sensationalism

“Sensationalism,” the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sensations, takes several closely related forms. As a psychological theory it stresses the origins of knowledge and the processes by which it is acquired; it seeks to reduce all mental contents to unitary sensations and has close connections with associationism. It is sometimes, as by its acute but sympathetic critic James Ward, called presentationism.

As an epistemological theory it tends toward the view that statements purporting to describe the world are analyzable into statements concerning the relations between sensations and that this analysis elucidates the meanings of the original statements. It is sometimes regarded as a form of empiricism and adopted with antimetaphysical intentions.

Sensations are usually regarded as occurrences in us, either caused by external objects (Epicurus and John Locke) or not meaningfully attributable to external causes (James Mill and Étienne Bonnot de Condillac). By some they are explicitly likened to feelings or emotions (Anaxagoras and David Hartley), and by others to images (Ernst Mach); the more modern forms, however, probably depend, even if not explicitly, on taking them all as analogous to feelings.

Sense

Sense
Sense

“Sense” is the distinctive central notion in theories of thought and language inspired by the later work of Gottlob Frege (“sense” translates Frege’s Sinn). For Frege what we think (not the act of thinking it) is a thought, an abstract object. Thoughts have quasi-syntactic structure.

Any simple or complex constituent of a thought, even the thought itself, is a sense; thus, senses are abstract. Frege assumes that it is irrational to assent to a thought and simultaneously dissent from it. Since someone misled about astronomy may rationally combine assent to the thought that Hesperus is Hesperus with dissent from the thought that Hesperus is Phosphorus, the thoughts are distinct.

Although the names “Hesperus” and “Phosphorus” have the same reference, they express different sense, two modes of presentation of one planet. The role of a sense is to present the thinker with a reference—that is, something on which the truth-value (truth or falsity) of the thought depends; if the sense fails to present a reference, the thought lacks a truth-value.

Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus - Summer Screenprinted Women TShirt
Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus, the Spanish theologian and physician, was born in Spanish Navarre and was burned at the stake in Geneva. In the history of medicine he is remembered for having been the first to publish a description of the pulmonary circulation of the blood, and in the history of theology, he is noted for his systematic refutation of the Nicene doctrine of the Trinity.

In philosophy, he developed a Christocentric pantheism that included elements from the Neoplatonic, Franciscan, and kabbalistic traditions. It should be pointed out, however, that he believed that natural philosophy should be grounded in empirical investigation.

After studying the three biblical languages as well as mathematics, philosophy, theology, and law at the universities of Zaragoza and Toulouse, Servetus, in the capacity of secretary, accompanied Juan de Quintana, the Franciscan confessor of Emperor Charles V, to the latter’s coronation in Bologna.

Sexism

Sexism
Sexism

The term sexism denotes any system of beliefs, attitudes, practices, social norms, or institutional forms that functions to create or perpetuate invidious social distinctions among persons on the basis of their actual or presumed sex.

This characterization of sexism reflects a widespread consensus among feminist theorists and queer theorists that the phenomenon cannot be understood simply in terms of the prejudices or ill-intentioned behavior of individuals, but rather must be seen as involving wideranging social structures, structures that can affect both the meanings and consequences of the actions of individuals, even if such actions are otherwise benign.

Marilyn Frye (1983) has explained, in just these terms, the inadequacy of a definition of sexism as any act or policy involving an “irrelevant or impertinent marking of the distinction between sexes.” She then bids us to consider an employer who refuses to hire a woman for a managerial position on the stated grounds that his employees would not accept the authority of a woman.

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